Commercial Law is the one that regulates trade relations, whether or not the persons involved in such relations are merchants.

According to article two of the commercial code of the Republic of Panama, all those that refer to commercial traffic are considered commercial relations, the following contracts and titles are of course considered as such:


1. The sale of commercial goods or merchandise properly so called, to profit from their resale or by any other means of commercial speculation.
2. The sale of credit titles and commercial securities of a public nature, or issued by the Government or the Municipalities, as well as private, or issued by individuals or by commercial companies, to profit from their resale or by any other means of commercial speculation;
3. The sale of intangible things, such as the rights of authors, trademarks, industrial privileges, the name, signature or commercial reason, etc., to profit from their resale or through other means of commercial speculation;
4. The sale of ships or gear, supplies, fuel and other objects necessary for navigation;
5. The sale of real estate for profit;
6. The exchange and other contracts to which the money and the titles that represent it in their quality of merchandise may be subject, generally understood under the denomination of banking operations;
7. The bill of exchange, the draft and the voucher or promissory note to order or to the bearer, the check and the letter of credit order issued from merchant to merchant, or to attend a commercial operation;
8. The general mandate and the commission when their object is a commercial operation;
9. Special mandates: between the principal and the factor; between the principal and the dependent authorized to govern a commercial operation or any part of the former's business or traffic; between the shipowner or shipper and the purser;
10. Transportation by land or river routes when its object is merchandise or any commercial effects, or when its object being any, the carrier is habitually engaged in verifying transports;
11. The chartering or transport by sea, of things and people;
12. The deposit, when it constitutes a commercial operation, or when it is made as a cause or consequence of commercial operations;
13. The insurance in general, when the insured pays a single or periodic installment as the price or compensation of the insurance;



14. Insurance against all kinds of risks and especially against maritime or maritime insurance;
15. The surety, the pledge and the mortgage, when they guarantee a commercial obligation or when they constitute a commercial operation;
16. The pledge constituted with titles of public credit, or effects or public values ​​or with titles or receipts issued by the general warehouses of deposit;
17. The naval mortgage;
18. The leasing of services: between the ordinary broker or the exchange and stock broker, and the one requesting the intervention of these trading mediators; between the ship interpreter broker and the one who uses his services; between the principal and the dependent; between the shipowner and the officers, and the sailors or adjusting contracts of the seaman;
19. The loan in general, when it constitutes a commercial operation, or when it is made due to an operation of this nature;
20. The loan with the guarantee of public credit titles or public effects or securities;
21. The loan to the gross;
22. Companies and associations in participation in participation when their object is a commercial operation;
23. Participation accounts;
24. The current account between merchants or due to a commercial operation;
25. Supply companies and bookstore, printing, typography, manufacturing, construction and public entertainment companies, insofar as they exceed the purely industrial limits;
26. Quasi contracts in cases of joint ownership of the ship and common average;
27. Accidental acts in cases of particular damage, such as forced arrival, collision, stranding and accidental shipwreck; and
28. Any others of a similar nature.


Trade between men is as old as the history of mankind and since its inception conflicts have always arisen over acts of trade, including many wars started for this cause.

When carrying out acts of commerce you may need a lawyer for multiple reasons, whatever your reason, let me know and I will gladly help you.



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